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What's the Difference Between Radio Controlled and Remote Controlled Vehicles?
Chances are very good that if you are reading this article, you are interested in operating remote-controlled vehicles and radio-controlled vehicles. It is also a fairly safe bet that you are like many others who are into these kinds of hobbies and you tend to have a natural curiosity about machines and how they work. If you fit this description, keep reading; you’re about to learn something new.
Those of you who are just beginning in the RC vehicle hobby and those of you who are just curious about it will find this article helpful as you delve deeper into the leisure pursuit or as you consider taking the RC plunge.
There is a simple definition for both “remote-controlled” and “radio-controlled.” Essentially, a remote-controlled vehicle is operated from a distant or remote location outside of the vehicle. This can be accomplished through a number of different methods, such as a wire attached to both vehicle and operating device or controller or a controller that transmits signals via radio waves to a receiver located in or on the vehicle. A radio-controlled vehicle is simply an unattached remote-controlled vehicle.   
In order for a radio-controlled vehicle to function properly, it needs to have four primary parts: a transmitter, a receiver, a motor and a power source. Let’s examine each of these individually.
The transmitter is just another way of saying controller. It normally uses battery to send radio wave signals to the vehicle, telling it what to do. Most transmitters are small enough to fit in your hand.
A common feature of RC transmitters is that they use drequency to send signals.  Most transmitters tend to be either single-function or full-function controllers. A single-function controller primarily allows the vehicle to move forward and backward. Full-function devices control those same maneuvers and can also make the vehicle turn right or left going forward and in reverse. In some advanced full-function controllers, operators are offered multiple levels of precise control. Controllers for more advanced RC systems often use dual joysticks with several levels of response for precision control.
Transmitters typically send their radio waves out as electrical pulse sequences, it’s the receiver’s job to catch those signals and respond accordingly. This is mostly done via an antenna built into the vehicle to receive the signals and a corresponding circuit board to interpret them and pass the instructions along to the motors and other equipment inside the vehicle.
Motors in RC vehicles are very simple. In an RC car, for example, the duties they perform are often limited to turning wheels to steer the car or serving as an electrical, nitro or gas powered engine.
Power source
As mentioned earlier in this article, transmitter uses the power  of battery to send the signal . Inside most RC cars is a gas, electric or nitro motor or motors, an antenna a battery pack and a circuit board. Commands that are sent through the radio waves and coded by the transmitter, then is captured through the air waves by the receiver, it is decoded and sent to the different part of the R/C system for achieving  the tasks that the commands were sent to accomplish. In today technology the radio control systems has become very complex. Alongside that complexity is coding process which some manufacturer use, to make the system invulnerable to the outside radio interference, and other issues that might prevent the system to function. One of such system was PCM ( pulse code modulation). Pulse code modulation is a method used to convert an analog signal into a digital signal. So that it can be transmitted through a digital communication network, and then converted back into the original analog signal. The PCM process includes three steps: Sampling, Quantization, and Coding.